A kidney is an important body of human metabolism, but also generate the urine organs. If the increase in glomerular permeability or tubular re-absorption of the weaker, and will directly affect the amount of urine or urine composition changes; the same time, metabolism, disease, etc., also affect the amount of urine or urine composition changes. Therefore, abnormal urine understanding of the situation is conducive to the disease, early detection and early treatment.
1, urine output
Normal adult amount of urine every day and night between 1500 ~ 2000 milliliters. If the 24-hour period, urine output less than 400 ml or less than 17 milliliters per hour, who said the oliguria; 24-hour urine volume of less than 100 ml of persons, known as anuria. Oliguria occurrence may be related to shock, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, or acute or chronic nephritis, acute tubular necrosis, or by stones, tumors and other causes related to urinary tract obstruction. No urine who can be seen in severe acute renal failure patients. Adult 24-hour urine volume more than 2500 milliliters, serving more than urine, common in physiological polyuria, endocrine diseases (such as diabetes insipidus), kidney disease.
2, urine color
The normal yellow urine, urine color depth and urine, in vivo metabolism. High fever, urine volume less, then the color depth, as many as slightly stained urine. If drinking less, or eat a lot of carrots and riboflavin, furans Tanzania bite drugs, can present a deep yellow urine or orange; If you're taking a pigment or dye methylene blue, phenyl salicylate and other drugs, the urine may appear blue; if the consumption of sugar beet, or phenol red, rifampin drugs, the urine can be red or pale red. These are normal, and if do not eat these foods, or stop taking drugs, urine will return to yellow.
Some of the changes in urine color may be a precursor to the disease, common conditions include:
1, tan: Multi-due to liver cell, obstructive or hemolytic jaundice caused. Such as jaundice hepatitis, biliary infection, biliary tract stones, blood diseases (such as thalassemia or hemolytic anemia and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria patients), broad bean diseases.
2, light green: Suffering from septicemia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
3, White: White urine a variety of situations, needs a clear distinction: ① chyluria, mainly caused by the blood of filariasis, abdominal tuberculosis, cancer, chest and abdominal trauma or surgery, congenital lymphatic malformations and pyelonephritis, also can cause; pregnancy, hydatid disease and malaria, but also can cause even. ② fat, urine and urine mixed with fat. Commonly found in kidney fat embolism and long bone fractures, can also be found in some diabetes, lipoid nephrosis, lipomatosis, pulmonary tuberculosis were. ③ pyuria, urine white. Commonly found in acute or chronic pyelonephritis, cystitis, urethritis, kidney and multiple abscess, renal abscess (complicated in the stone or water), renal tuberculosis, fungal, or parasitic infections. Acute glomerulonephritis may also occur with mild increase in the short-term white blood cells white blood cells in urine.
4, hematuria: Many diseases can cause hematuria, but the symptoms associated with their own characteristics. Painless hematuria should be considered the urinary system tumors, especially for older people are more attention should be given; if accompanied by urinary frequency, urgency, dysuria, urinary tract infections are much more; if accompanied by the waist, lower abdomen cramps, you should consider urinary tract; if accompanied by difficulties in urinating, should be considered benign prostatic hyperplasia and bladder stones.
Normal urine, place a long time, will break down ammonia odor occurs. However, if there is a new discharge of urine ammonia odor, often expressed with chronic cystitis and chronic urinary retention. If the discharge of urine with a fecal odor is probably E. coli infection; if apple, then mostly due to diabetic ketoacidosis.
Normal urine after rocking a small amount of white or yellow foam, heavy proteinuria, may produce a large number of white foam, it is because the protein changes the surface tension of urine.
Of course, this only from the simple physical properties of the urine to determine a preliminary analysis of the body's health. When your urine, the above-mentioned changes, it is recommended to the regular hospital for routine urine and urine chemistry and renal function in areas such as laboratory examinations for early detection of disease, early treatment